US Dept of State > J-1 Visa Exchange Visitor Program > J-1 Internship Program

Exchange Visitor Program
CCIP EVP J-1 Internship in NYC

About CCIP
In the News
Awards & Commendations
Video Gallery
Contact Us

Photo Gallery (Activities)
Student Leadership

Become a Host
Photo Gallery (Workplace)

Exchange Visitor Program
Alumni Corner
STAR Awards
Recognition Ceremony
NYC Travel Guide

Use a standard computer and Google Chrome to access this website.

We do not accept any liability arising from the use of this site, including errors in or omissions of any information.

Contents on this site are for reference only and are protected under both US and foreign intellectual property laws. Unauthorized copying, reproduction, or downloading of any of the material on the site for commercial use is prohibited.

Exchange Visitor Program
The Cross Cultural Internship Program (CCIP)
Internship in New York City

In NYC, it is now Sep 22, 2017 (Fri) 11:23 AM
Last modified: January 08, 2017 (Sun) 06:13 am (EST) 522


EVP participants are required to familiarize themselves with the expectations, terms, rules, and regulations associated with the US Department of State's Exchange Visitor Program.

Exchange Visitor Program

Exchange Visitor Program

Foreign nationals interning in the US must take part in the US Department of State's (DOS) Exchange Visitor Program (EVP) and meet its eligibility requirements. Administered by the DOS, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Private Sector Exchange, EVP was created to increase mutual understanding between Americans and the people of other countries by means of educational and cultural exchanges. It gives foreign nationals the opportunity to come to the US for short-term immersion programs to learn US customs and culture. At the end of the program, participants return to their home countries to share what they learned and experienced with their peers, thereby supporting the development of peaceful international relations.

Visa categories

EVP has 15 programs that enable foreign nationals to come to the US to teach, study, conduct research, demonstrate special skills, or receive on-the-job training for periods ranging from a few weeks to three years.

The programs include: Professor, Research Scholar, Short-Term Scholar, Specialist, Alien Physician, Teacher, Trainee, Intern, Summer Work Travel, Students (Secondary/High School), Student Interns (College/University), Au Pair, Camp Counselor, Government Visitor, and International Visitor. CCIP falls into the J-1 Intern category.

J-1 Internship Program

J-1 internship programs are designed to allow foreign college and university students or recent graduates to come to the US to gain exposure to US culture and to receive hands-on experience in US business practices in their chosen occupational field relevant to their specific fields of study/expertise; they do not merely participate in work programs. The primary objectives are to enhance the skills and expertise of exchange visitors in their academic or occupational fields through participation in structured and guided work-based training and internship programs and to improve participants' knowledge of American techniques, methodologies, and technology. They are also intended to increase participants' understanding of American culture and society and to enhance Americans' knowledge of foreign cultures and skills through an open interchange of ideas between participants and their American associates. A key goal is that participants will return home and share their experiences with their countrymen. It also allows interns to develop practical skills that will enhance their future careers. Bridging the gap between formal education and practical work experience and gaining substantive cross-cultural experience are also major goals.

Designated visa sponsor

To implement the EVP, the DOS designated a limited number of organizations to administer and facilitate training and internship programs. These organizations are called the designated visa sponsors, and they handle a list of duties such as supervising the application process, screening and selection, providing pre-arrival information, conducting an orientation, monitoring activities, facilitation of exchange visitors participating in cross-cultural activities, and evaluation. They are also the main points of contact throughout the exchange program process.

FUSIA, organizer of CCIP, is a designated visa sponsor in the J-1 Intern category.

J-1 Interns

J-1 Interns are exchange visitors in the J-1 Intern category. They must be foreign nationals, sponsored by a designated visa sponsor of the J-1 intern category, and intern in a qualified host organization that provides a qualified internship and training environment. They must abide by the rules of their visa sponsors as stated in 22 CFR Part 62. Their primary purpose in the US is to engage in internship rather than employment. They must have verifiable English language skills sufficient to function on a day-to-day basis in their training environment and sufficient funding to support themselves for their entire stay in the US, including housing and living expenses. And they must also have qualified medical insurance to cover themselves.

Responsible and alternate responsible officers

Sponsors appoint individuals as responsible officers and alternate responsible officers to advise and assist exchange visitors. These officers issue related forms and conduct official communication with the Departments of State (DOS) and Homeland Security (DHS) on exchange visitors' behalf. If problems arise, or in case of questions about the regulations or any aspect of the exchange program, exchange visitors should turn to them for assistance.

DS-7002 (Training/Internship Placement Plan)

Form DS-7002 serves as the official outline of the proposed internship and agreement between the host organization and the J-1 Intern regarding the kind of tasks and objectives that will be completed. The form must be signed by participants, the prospective host, and the visa sponsor in order to be valid. Participants remain at their prospective host and only engage in the activities stated in the DS-7002 form. In case of deviations or potential deviations, participants must inform their visa sponsor immediately.

DS-2019 (Certificate of Eligibility for Exchange Visitor Status)

Form DS-2019 is a SEVIS-generated form provided to the exchange visitors by their program sponsor. The original copy is required when applying for the visa and entering the US. Participants should keep the original in a safe place at all times, before and after the program. In case of loss, participants shall inform the organizer immediately and complete the necessary replacement procedures. In case of program withdrawal or termination, participants must immediately return the original to the visa sponsor within the specified parameters.

SEVIS (Student and Exchange Visitor Information System)

The SEVIS database is a tracking system used by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to monitor all movements of non-immigrant exchange visitors (J visas). The program's User Panel is designed to correlate with the SEVIS database, which requires accurate, complete, and current information. Any discrepancies are considered violations and are subject to serious punitive actions and/or penalties. Despite the visa sponsor checking records as a courtesy, it is participants' own responsibility to ensure that their records on file are accurate, complete, and current, and they solely assume all risks and consequences if not.

Occupational categories

EVP categorizes internships into different occupational categories, and participants must attend an internship in an occupational category related to their academic studies. Host placements are issued based on the opt-ins indicated in the Host and Session Preferences, and participants must be able to provide evidence to prove such a correlation between the internship and their academic studies upon request.

FUSIA sponsors the following categories: (1) Arts and Culture; (2) Education, Social Sciences, Library Science, Counseling and Social Services; (3) Information Media and Communications; (4) Management, Business, Commerce and Finance; (5) Public Administration and Law; (6) The Sciences, Engineering, Architecture, Mathematics and Industrial Occupations. FUSIA does not sponsor the following categories: (1) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; (2) Construction and Building Trades; (3) Health-Related Occupations; (4) Hospitality and Tourism

J-1 Intern visa application

Program enrollment is contingent upon approval of a participant's J-1 Intern visa application. Upon issuance of Form DS-2019, participants will apply for the J-1 visa at their local embassy or consulate. In case of denial, and depending on the reasons for such, participants may be eligible to reapply. Participants must complete Form DS-160, pay the nonimmigrant visa application fee, schedule the interview appointment within seven days, and complete the interview process within 14 days (or on the earliest appointment day) after issuance of Form DS-2019. Because of the program's calendar nature (certain things must be done by certain dates), the visa sponsor may treat delayed cases as denial and terminate its visa sponsorship.

Intention, visa transfer, and J-2 dependent visa

The J-1 Intern visa is not intended to be a substitute for ordinary work purposes, nor is it intended to displace American workers or act as a conduit to permanent work or residency in the US under any circumstances. The organizer does not handle visa transfers and does not sponsor the J-2 dependent visa.

Grace Period

J-1 visa holders are allowed to arrive up to 30 days in advance of and leave up to 30 days after their program period. Despite the allowed 30-day period, the program enforces a shorter 21-day period in case of contingency situations. During these periods, J-1 visa holders are only allowed to travel and settle matters for their return home. Arriving before or leaving after the specified grace period is not permitted.


Upon approval of the J-1 visa application and before admission to the US, participants shall immediately notify the organizer and complete the necessary validation procedures within the specified time frame. After admission to the US on the FUSIA-sponsored J-1 visa, participants will not be permitted to return to the US with the same J-1 visa they used for initial entry unless such travel happens during the program period and is given prior consent by the visa sponsor, and they have completed the necessary travel validation procedures. Failure to comply shall result in immediate program termination without a refund.

Cross-cultural activities

The broad purpose of the EVP is to promote international educational and cultural exchanges in order to develop a mutual understanding between the people of the US and other countries. To that end, participants are expected to actively participate in cross-cultural activities on their own as well as in those made available by the program to expose them to American society, culture, and people.

Two-year home-country physical presence requirement

Some exchange visitors are subject to a two-year home-country physical presence requirement that requires that they return to their home country for at least two years at the end of their exchange visitor program. Participants who are unable to return to their home country to fulfill the two-year requirement must obtain a waiver approved by DHS prior to changing status in the US or being issued a visa in certain categories for travel to the US. (

J-1 Visa Application

The following covers information regarding J-1 intern visa application.

I have two passports. Which passport should I use?

Holders of passports issued by different countries must use the same one for applying to the J-1 internship program and obtaining the J-1 visa stamp. Personal information entered to different applications must be completely in sync and match the information of the passport they choose to use. They must also bring and use the same passport when attending the embassy/consulate interview.

I am a Canadian citizen. Do I have to apply for the nonimmigrant visa?

Canadian Citizens do not need visas to intern in the US. They do need to obtain the DS-2019 form from their J-1 visa sponsor, be registered with SEVIS, and be assigned a SEVIS number, and they will be required to pay the SEVIS fee.

When crossing the border, show the following documents to the CBP officer:

1. Proof of identity and citizenship (e.g. a Canadian passport)
2. Original DS-2019 certificate
3. SEVIS fee payment proof (Form I-797)
4. Proof of sufficient funds to pay for the entire trip
5. Proof of ties to Canada


Do Visa Waiver Program (VWP) country passport holders requare a visa?

Citizens of qualified countries (such as Singapore, Australia and Taiwan) are permitted to visit the US for 90 days without a visa under the Visa Waiver Program (VWP). However, this is only good for entering for sightseeing purposes. For the purpose of an internship, you still need to apply for the J-1 intern visa and follow the regular nonimmigrant visa application procedures.

2. (Singapore)

If I have previously participated in a J-1 program, can I join again?

Exchange visitors who have previously participated in the Exchange Visitor Program may participate in the program again under a different category (e.g. before under "Summer Work and Travel", now under "Intern").

Exchange visitors who have previously participated in a J-1 internship program may participate in another J-1 internship program which addresses the development of more advanced skills or a different field of expertise.

Can I attend two exchange programs, one after the other?

Students attending a F-1 or J-1 program during the upcoming spring semester may consult their school for possible OPT/CPT or visa extension arrangements. In such a case, they may attend CCIP with the visa sponsored by their host university.

In all cases, students need to pay for the visa application and SEVIS fees two times.

No decision can be made prior to the visa application. The consular officer will make the decision in accordance with US immigration law after reviewing the documentation you submit.

As many factors influence the decision to grant a visa, consult your local consulate/embassy for the latest information. We do not handle visa transfers

Form I-901 and SEVIS Fee

The I-901 SEVIS Fee is mandated by Congress to support the program office and the automated system that keeps track of students and exchange visitors and ensures that they maintain their status while in the US.

Each exchange visitor issued an initial Form DS-2019 is responsible for paying this fee (USD 180) to SEVP. Before the J-1 intern visa interview, carefully complete the form and print out the electronic receipt ( In case of errors, email

Once we have issued your DS-2019 form, you may start applying for your exchange visitor visa:

Step 1. Have your passport, DS-2019 form, credit card, and printer handy
Step 2. Visit
Step 3. Select DS-2019 and complete the online form
Step 4. Refer to your DS-2019 form for your SEVIS ID
Step 5. Complete the transaction and print out the receipt

Nonimmigrant Visa Application (Form DS-160) and Visa Application Fee

Before scheduling a visa interview appointment, complete the DS-160 nonimmigrant visa application, upload a qualified digital portrait photo taken within the last six months, and submit the visa application fee.

Complete the DS-160 form online:

Step 1. Test your portrait photo via
Step 2. Click
Step 3. Select the location where you will apply for the visa
Step 5. Record Application ID in a safe and secure place
Step 6. Complete security question/answer
Step 7. Complete and submit the DS-160 online form
Step 8. Generate the confirmation page
Step 9. Write down the 10-digit barcode
Step 10. Email yourself a backup copy of the DS-160 form

In case of mistakes, complete another form before you schedule the interview, and take your new DS-160 form with you when you attend the visa interview. Your new DS-160 number must be in sync with your UID.

1. Right browser, Javascript, 28-bit encryption
2. DS-160 information in sync with your SEVIS records
3. HK BNO and HK SAR are two different selections
4. Some fields (e.g. address field) do not allow special symbols
5. ANSWER IN ENGLISH (except your native name)
6. Session expires after 20 minutes of idle time (click Save)

Pay the visa fee and schedule a visa appointment:

Step 1. Create a user profile ( or
Step 2. Log in and complete the steps for your visa type
Step 3. Print your deposit slip (do not print multiple copies)
Step 4. Submit the non-refundable visa application processing fee (USD 160) at the designated location (e.g. 7-Eleven in Hong Kong and Standard Chartered in Singapore) and save your receipt number
Step 5. Schedule your interview at 0900 the following business day and complete the Schedule Your Appointment steps with your receipt number

Preparing for the visa interview

Get all necessary materials (e.g. bank statements, school transcripts, IELTS results, etc.) ready and triple check information on all completed forms (e.g. I-901, DS-160, etc.) at least 72 hours prior to your interview, or you may not have enough time to rectify errors in case of mistakes.

You must demonstrate that you have strong intention of returning to your home country after the internship, have sufficient funds in your or your parents' bank accounts to cover your expenses in the US (refer to your sponsor letter or DS-2019 form), and possess the necessary English proficiency (e.g. TOEFL, IELTS, etc.)

You must also show proof that your internship/training is relevant to your academic studies and display a clear understanding of the details of the internship, such as where it takes place, where you will be staying, what you will be doing, why you are attending the internship, etc. Do your homework and study your DS-7002 form and relevant information beforehand.

Remind yourself that you are a J-1 Exchange Visitor and coming to the US for an "internship". J-1 internship program is not for employment purposes. Avoid using words such as "work" or "employment" which may cause confusions.

Take the visa application and interview processes very seriously. Arrive at least 30 minutes prior to the scheduled time. If you miss your scheduled appointment time, you will be required to pay the visa application fee again in order to schedule another interview. If you miss one document or for various reasons, your application may be sent for "administrative processing" which can take a few more weeks/months to process.

Bring enough cash in case you have to retake your portrait or pay or other expenses (e.g. reciprocity fee for Australian citizens, passport mailing fee, etc.)

Required documentation:
1. Printed copy of the appointment receipt (from the User Profile Panel)
2. DS-160 confirmation page
3. One 2 x 2 inch photo taken within the last six months
4. Current passport and all expired passports (and US visas)
5. DS-2019 form Certificate of Eligibility (original)
6. DS-7002 Training Plan signed by all parties
7. SEVIS I-901 receipt (Form I-797)
8. Visa application fee payment confirmation receipt
9. Hong Kong or Mainland ID card (if applicable)

Additional documentation you should take:
1. Student identification card
2. Resume (download from the User Panel)
3. School and English aptitude test transcripts, certificates, test scores, etc.
4. Recent bank statements with sufficient funds from parents, yours, etc. (refer to your DS-2019 form)
5. Proof of intention of returning home (if final year, e.g. grad school or employment acceptance letter)
6. Proof of qualified health insurance (download from the User Panel)
7. Visa sponsor support letter (download from the User Panel)
8. Visa application fee payment confirmation (email) and appointment page (print screen)

Inside the consulate/embassy

The following outline the typical procedures inside the consulate/embassy (note: situation may vary among locations):

Step 1. You will enter the first counter where you will indicate your intention (e.g. applying for the J-1 intern visa) to the officer who will ask you to submit necessary documents (e.g. your passport, DS-2019, DS-7002, financial documents, etc.)

Step 2. You will pass through a security checkpoint. You will NOT be allowed to enter the building while carrying any of prohibited items, which will have to be temporarily surrendered at the security checkpoint.

Step 3. You will enter the building and will be fingerprinted as part of the visa interview.

Step 4. You will line up and wait for the visa interview. Each interview takes about 3 minutes. Past students' experiences vary. Some officers ask for more documents or information; some ask for less. The rule of thumb is to be fully prepared (do not assume) and answer questions confidently and naturally (avoid wishy-washy answers). Be direct and concise. Organize the documentation properly so that you can promptly show proof (e.g. resume, transcripts, and so on) upon request. In most cases, you should know the results immediately at the end of the interview.

Step 5. After the interview, you will leave the building. During the security checkpoint, pick up your personal belongings. In about three days, you will receive an email regarding pickup/delivery information of your passport.

This is only a sample. Please use your own judgement. Adjust your answers accordingly and answer the questions confidently, directly, and concisely:

1. What is your name?
2. What school do you go to?
3. Who is your visa sponsor?
4. What do you study?
5. Why are you applying for the visa?
6. Who provides financial support to your internship?
7. Where will you be interning?
8. Why did you choose this company?
9. What will you be doing there?
10. Why do you want to intern in the US?
11. Where will you be staying in the US?
12. What else do you plan to do in the US?
13. What do you plan to do after the internship?
14. Do you receive a salary?
15. Do you have a boyfriend/girlfriend?

After the visa interview

If your visa is approved, the consular officer will retain your passport and DS-2019 form at the time of interview. The visa will be stamped into your passport and returned to you, along with your original DS-2019 form.

If your DS-7002 form is not attached to your passport, include it together with your DS-2019 form inside your passport as you will need it when you enter the US. DO NOT LOSE IT. Failure to show it at the Port of Entry may incur unnecessary fees and reflect poorly on your record.

If you are a nonimmigrant applicant, you may check your DS-160 and visa application status online by entering your interview location and your DS-160 barcode number:

1. To check your visa application status, visit
2. To track your passport delivery status, visit

Upon receipt of your returned passport, check and make sure your information is correct.

For your convenience, you may choose to have the passport sent to your home address (sign-off is required) or to the pickup location. You have several options to choose from to track the location of your passport. If your passport is ready for pick-up, please bring supporting documentation and collect it in a timely manner. If your passport is not collected in a timely manner, it will be sent back to the embassy/consulate.

Applicants in Hong Kong may enjoy free home or office delivery of their passports or pick up their passports in person at one of the specified locations. Click HERE for tracking information.


The following is a list of websites you may find useful when researching information regarding the Exchange Visitor Program.

Department of State - The Exchange Visitor Program

- J-1 Program: Click HERE
- J-1 Internship Program: Click HERE
- Private Sector Exchange: Click HERE
- Click HERE
- CFR Title 22 Part 62: Click HERE

US Department of Homeland Security and Other Sites

Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE): Click HERE
Customs and Border Protection: Click HERE
Bureau of Consular Affairs: Click HERE

US Department of State, consulates/embassies in Asia

US Consulate - Hong Kong and Macau
Address: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
Visa Inquires: +852 58084666
Website: Click HERE

US Embassy - Singapore
Address: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
Inquires: +65 6476-9100
Office Hours: 8:30 am - 5:15 pm Mondays to Fridays
Website: Click HERE

US Embassy - Seoul, Korea
Address: 188 Sejong-daero, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea 110-710
Inquiries: +82 2-397-4114
Website: Click HERE

US Embassy - Busan, Korea
Address: Room #612, Lotte Gold Rose Building, #150-3, Yangjung-dong, Busan jin-gu, Busan, Korea
Inquiries: +82 2-397-4114
Website: Click HERE

US Embassy - Beijing
Address: No. 55 An Jia Lou Lu 100600
Visa Inquires: 4008-872-333 (local); 86-21-3881-4611 (abroad)
Website: Click HERE

US Consulate - Guangzhou
Address: No. 1 Shamian Street South, Guangzhou, China 510133
Website: Click HERE

US Embassy - Shanghai
Address: 1469 Huai Hai Zhong Rd, Shanghai, China 200031
Visa Inquires: 4008-872-333; 86-21-3881-4611 (local)
Website: Click HERE


The following consists of answers to frequently asked questions regarding J-1 Intern visa.

What does being found ineligible mean?

If a consular officer finds you are not eligible to receive a visa under US law, your visa application will be denied (refused), and you will be provided a reason for the denial. There are many reasons a visa applicant could be found ineligible for a visa. Some ineligibilities can be overcome; other ineligibilities are permanent.

Here are some examples of visa ineligibilities, with INA references.

1. INA section 221(g) - Did not fully complete the visa application and/or provide all required supporting documentation; after submitting the documentation, your visa application can then be processed to conclusion to determine whether you qualify for a visa

2. INA section 214(b) - Did not sufficiently demonstrate that you qualify for the nonimmigrant visa category you applied for, and/or did not overcome the presumption of immigrant intent

3. INA section 212(a)(4) – Did not sufficiently demonstrate that you have sufficient financial support during your temporary stay in the US

4. INA Section 212(a)(6)(C)(i) - Misrepresented a material fact or committed fraud to attempt to receive a visa

5. INA Section 212(a)(9)(B)(i) - Previously remained longer than authorized in the US

For a complete list of all visa ineligibilities, see

I was found ineligible for a visa. Can I get my money back?

No. The fee that you paid is a non-refundable application processing fee.

Can I reapply for a visa?

After being found ineligible for a visa, you may reapply in the future. If you reapply for a visa after being found ineligible, with the exception of 221(g) refusals, you must submit a new visa application and pay the visa application fee again. If you were found ineligible under section 214(b) of the INA, you should be able to present evidence of significant changes in circumstances since your last application.

What does a visa denial under INA section 221(g) mean?

A visa denial under section 221(g) of the INA means that the consular officer did not have all of the information required to determine if you are eligible to receive a visa, and your case is pending further action for one of the following reasons:

1. Your application is incomplete and/or further documentation is required - Instructions will be given to you at the conclusion of the interview and, in most cases, you will have one year from the date of your interview to submit the necessary documentation. After submitting the documentation, your visa application can then be processed to conclusion to determine whether you qualify for a visa.

2. Further administrative processing of your application is required before a decision can be made regarding your eligibility for a visa - Some visa applications require further administrative processing, which takes additional time after the visa interview. Most administrative processing is resolved within 90 days of the visa interview. However, the timing will vary based on the individual circumstances of each case. No assurances regarding the issuance of visas can be given in advance. For more, visit

What is the Two-Year Home-Country Physical Presence Requirement?

Certain exchange visitors (J-1) are subject to a two-year home-country physical presence requirement and are required to return to their home country for a cumulative total period of at least two years at the end of their exchange visitor program under US immigration law before they can:

1. Change their status while in the US to the nonimmigrant categories of temporary worker (H) or intra-company transferee (L),
2. Adjust their status while in the US to immigrant visa/lawful permanent resident status (LPR),
3. Receive an immigrant visa at a US Embassy or Consulate, or
4. Receive a temporary worker (H), intra-company transferee (L), or fiancé (K) visa at a US embassy/consulate.

This is also known as the foreign residence requirement under US law, Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 212(e). Exchange visitors who are subject to the two-year foreign residence (home-country physical presence) requirement are a national or permanent resident of a country (e.g. China) which has deemed the field of specialized knowledge or skill necessary to the development of the country, as shown on the Exchange Visitor Skills List.

If they are unable to return to their home country to fulfill the two-year requirement, they must obtain a waiver approved by the Department of Homeland Security prior to changing status in the United States or being issued a visa in certain categories for travel to the United States.

How early can I enter the US prior to the program start date?

You may enter the US within 30 days before your program starts. If you want to enter earlier than 30 days, you may first enter the US using your B-2 (visitor) visa (prior application/approval is required) or VWP status (if applicable); leave the US within 30 days prior to your program start date, and then enter the US again using your J-1 Intern visa.

Can I cross the border during the program?

Once admitted to the US on the J-1 intern visa, J-1 interns are not allowed to cross the border until their J-1 internship program has begun, as well as after their visa sponsor has validated their SEVIS status and signed on their DS-2019 form.

Mainland Chinese passport holders are not allowed to visit Canada without the Canadian visa. Mainland Chinese students who plan to visit Canada must apply for the Canadian visa beforehand.

After completion of the J-1 internship program and leaving the US, J-1 interns are no longer allowed enter into the US using their J-1 intern visa. Citizens of qualified countries (such as Singapore, Australia, Taiwan, etc.) or B-2 (travel) visa holders, however, may enter the US again using their Visa Waiter Program (VWP) status or travel visa respectively.

Students participated in the Little Neck-Douglaston Memorial Day Parade.

Broadway show - Cats.

The Statue of Liberty.s
 (C) 2017 Fusia Communications, Inc. | All rights reserved | STAFF